Rectal Cancer

What is Rectal Cancer?

The rectum or rectal is the lower part of the colon that connects the large bowel to the anus. The primary function of rectal is to store formed stool in preparation for evacuation.  Rectal have 3 layers:

    • Mucosa

The mucosa is inner surface and composed of glands that secrete mucus to help the passage of stools.

    • Muscularis propria

The muscularis propia is the middle layer of rectal which composed of muscle that helps the rectum keeps its shape and contract in a coordinated fashion to expel stool.

    • Mesorectum

Mesorectum is a fatty tissue surrounds the rectum.Rectal cancer occurs when cancerous cells develop in the tissue of the rectum. The rectal cancer tumor is found worldwide, but rectal cancer is most common in areas which have low fiber diets.

What is rectal cancer risk factor?

There are a number of factors which increase the risk of developing rectal cancer?

    • Family History of rectal cancer

The people who have the first relative of parent with rectal cancer have an increased risk, particularly if the relative develop rectal cancer at a young age.

    • Polyps

Rectal cancer patient who have previously had a polyp in the large bowel should undergo regular colonoscopy.

    • Hereditary conditions

High risk of rectal cancer if people with hereditary conditions such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis or Hereditary Non Polyposis Colorectal Cancer.

    • Inflammatory bowel disease

The people, who suffer from ulcerative colitis, have approximately a tenfold risk of developing the disease and should have a colonoscopy carried out regularly.

    • Diet

People who suffer from obesity are also at an increased risk. Diet with high fat and low fiber diet is the worst diet that predisposes people to rectal cancer.


How Rectal Cancer Diagnosis?

It is important for the doctor to see the medical history of patient, asking about any symptoms experiencing and conducting a thorough physical examination. The people may recommend one or more of the following diagnostic test:

    • Barium Enema

Lower gastrointestinal series which is this test involves taking X-rays of the large intestines.

    • Biopsy

A small amount of tissue from the suspected area is removed for examination by a pathologist to make a diagnosis.

    • Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy is performed to see inside the rectum and the entire colon and remove polyps or other abnormal tissue for examination under a microscope.

    • Digital Rectal Exam

The doctor and nurse inserting a gloved then lubricate finger into the rectum to feel for an abnormalities.

    • Fecal Occult Blood Test

Noninvasive test is to detect the presence of hidden or occult blood in the stool. Hidden blood in the stool is often the first and in many cases the only, warning sign that a person has colorectal cancer.

    • Sigmoidoscopy

Sigmoidoscopy performed to see inside the rectum and the lower colon and remove polyps or other abnormal tissue for examination under a microscope.


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